|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 51-55
Scientific insights in the preparation and characterization of a traditionally prepared Vanga Bhasma by three methods
Manjiri Anil Ranade
Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Sri Sai Ayurvedic Medical College, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||07-Jun-2023|
|Date of Acceptance||19-Jul-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||26-Sep-2023|
Dr. Manjiri Anil Ranade
Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Sri Sai Ayurvedic Medical College, Staff quarter no. F3/2, Sri Sai Ayurvedic Medical College Campus, Sarsol, GT road, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 202002
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Jarana and Marana processes are mentioned for making Bhasma in metals having low melting point such as Naga, Vanga, and Yashada. No research work was done stating the physiochemical and elemental changes happening after Jarana, as well as Ariloha (Haratala) marita and Parda marita Vanga Bhasma (VB). The present study deals with the preparation of VB by three different methods and physiochemical analysis at each stage of preparation. Materials and Methods: Three types of test drugs Vanaspati jarita VB (VB-A), Vanaspati Jarita, Haralal Marita VB (VB-B), and Parada, Haratal Marita VB (VB-C), were prepared as per the guidelines of pharmaceutics of Ayurveda. Discussion and Results: The organoleptic characters of the raw, shodhit, Jarita Vanga, and VB were then studied, followed by the elemental assay, and the changes in the elemental constituents were compared and studied with the elemental constituents of Asuddha Vanga, Shodhit Vanga, and VB (Haratal and Parada marita). Rekhapurnata was found after Jaran stage, and it increased after Maran process. VB-B and -C passed all the classical organoleptic parameters. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy research shows Sn and O as main ingredients, and Hg was present in VB-C. All of the Bhasma samples included Fe, Pt, and Si. Conclusion: Despite being smooth to the touch and devoid of heavy metals, Jarita vanga does not satisfy all the standards of classical Bhasma parikshas. For a patient’s safe consumption, VB made using the Putapaka method may be recommended. VB prepared using any of these techniques could produce nanoparticle-sized particles.
Keywords: Analysis, Haratal Marita Vanga Bhasma, Parada Haratal Marita Vanga Bhasma, Vanaspati Jarita
|How to cite this article:|
Ranade MA. Scientific insights in the preparation and characterization of a traditionally prepared Vanga Bhasma by three methods. J Ayurveda Homeopath Allied Health Sci 2022;1:51-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Ranade MA. Scientific insights in the preparation and characterization of a traditionally prepared Vanga Bhasma by three methods. J Ayurveda Homeopath Allied Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Dec 10];1:51-5. Available from: http://www.dpujahas.org/text.asp?2022/1/2/51/386303
| Introduction|| |
The science of Rasashastra deals with preparations comprising mercury as well as iatrogenic alchemy. The Rasashastra literature describes different Dhatus (metals), such as Suvarna, Rajata, Tamra, Lauha, Naga, Vanga, and Yashada. Vanga (Tin-Sn) is one among these and has been known to Indians since the Vedic era, while Vanga Bhasma (VB) has been mentioned since the Samhita era. It falls under the Puti-Loha (a group of metals that release foul odors when processed) category in Rasagranthas. The usage of VB is recommended for conditions such as Upadamsha (gonorrhea), Shwetapradara (leucorrhea), Kshaya (general debility), Kasa (cough), Shwasa (asthama), Vrana (wound), Kushtha (skin disorders), Jantughna (bactericidal), and other indications such as Garbhashayachyuti (uterine prolapse). The Rasashastra scholars were compelled to develop a variety of techniques to deal with impure Vanga sevan (ingestion) hazards. As a result, Vanga is treated using techniques such as Shodhan and Maran, producing VB that is therapeutically beneficial. Rasashastra texts contain descriptions of a variety of different methods for preparing VB. Even though the Bhasma preparation is done in a particular way, there is no set standard by which to compare preparation variations. According to the media employed, Dhatu Maran can be obtained in four different ways: Rasa marita Bhasma, Kashthaushadhi marita Bhasma, Gandhaka marita Bhasma, and Ariloha marita Bhasma. The present study deals with the preparation of VB by three different methods and physiochemical analysis at each stage of preparation.
The study aimed to compare physiochemical analysis of three different Vanga Bhasms preparations and to obtain best suitable method of VB preparation.
- To make three different varieties of VB-A: Jarita VB (processed with Ashwattha Twak); VB-B: Jarita Vanga and Haratala (Ariloha marita VB); and VB-C: Shuddha Vanga, Parada, and Haratala (Parad marita VB).
- To verify the method used by Vanga’s Shodhan, Jaran, and Maran and create Standard Manufacturing Processes for it.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Three types of test drugs, Vanaspati jarita VB (VB-A), Vanaspati Jarita Haralal Marita VB (VB-B), and Parada, Haratal Marita vanga (VB-C), were prepared as per the guidelines of pharmaceutics of Ayurveda.
Acquisition of primary raw materials
Raw Vanga was purchased from a local vendor. Identification and authentication of raw Vanga-khuraka vanga were selected according to grahya lakshanas mentioned in texts. The following materials were purchased from the local market: Tila Taila, Parada, Haratala, Kulattha seeds, Rasona, Ashwatthatvak, and Arkapatra. From a nearby cow shed, gomutra was obtained.
Samanya Shodhan of Vanga
Principle: Dhalana (melting, followed by quenching). Media: 1. Tila Taila (sesame oil), 2. Takra (butter milk), 3. Gomutra (cow urine), 4. Kanji (sour gruel), 5. Kulattha Kwatha (decoction of seeds of Dolichos biflorus): q.s. Duration: 6 days. Equipments: Pithara Yantra, stainless steel vessels, Loha Darvi, measuring vessel, weighing scale, gas stove (kitchen type), etc. Materials: Raw Vanga: 500 g. Duration: 23 h.
Procedure: On the gas burner, Ashuddha Vanga was heated and then transferred to a Loha Darvi. The molten Vanga was quenched in tila taila and kept in pithar yantra. After a short while, the solidified Vanga was taken from the Pithara Yantra’s bottom and put through the same procedure six more times. The same quantity of fresh Tilataila was used for quenching each time. The same procedure was followed for the Shodhan with Takra, Gomutra, Kanji, and Kulattha Kwatha. Every time, fresh and gravimetrically equal amount of media was taken for quenching of Vanga. The weight of shodhit vanga and the time taken for melting were noted each time. During the Shodhan of Vanga, changes taking place in Vanga as well as in the media have been carefully noted.
Observations: Vanga caught fire during the initial heating, but there was no fire seen after further heating. Vanga’s color turned more lustrous. Brittleness of Vanga pieces was increased after Shodhan. Vanga was partially transformed into a coarse powder. In the course of each quenching procedure, media began to boil. At the end of samnya shodhana, 439.04 g of Vanga was collected.
Vishesha shodhana of Vanga
Principle: Dhalana (melting, followed by quenching). Duration: 6 h. Equipments: the same as above: Materials: Samanya Shodhita Vanga of 439.04 g. Media: Churnodaka—q.s.
Procedure: On the gas burner, samanya shodhit Vanga was heated and then transferred to a Loha Darvi. The molten Vanga was quenched in churnodaka and kept in pithar yantra. After a short while, the solidified Vanga was taken from the Pithara Yantra’s bottom and put through the same procedure six more times. The same quantity of fresh churnodaka was used for quenching each time. The weight of Shodhit vanga and the time taken for melting were noted each time. During the Shodhan of Vanga, observations taking place in Vanga as well as in the media have been carefully noted.
Observation: In the Pithara Yantra, Vanga quenching caused a slight eruption in the media. There was also a hissing sound heard. Each time the Vanga melted, there was a release of vapors. Following the Vishesha Shodhan, Vanga changed to a bright silver color, with some of it turning into a coarse powder. The finished item was a solid, silver-glittering Vanga with a small amount of granular material. At the end of vishesha shodhana, 420.40 g of vanga was collected. This was divided into three equal parts of 140 g each, and VB was prepared by three different methods.
Jaran of Shodhita Vanga—Vanga Bhasma-A-Shuddha Vanga + Ashwattha Twak Churna-Jaran
Principle: Avapa. Duration: 4 h. Equipments: iron pan (Kadahi), iron ladle with a long handle, weighing scale, Sharava, Stainless steel spatula, etc. Ingredients: Vishesha Shodhita Vanga of 140 g. Medium: Ashwattha Tvak Churna—¼ parts (35 g).
Procedure: The prescribed quantity of Vishesha Shodhita Vanga was taken in the Lauha Kadahi. Heat was applied to the Vanga until it melted entirely. The molten Vanga was sprinkled with a measured amount of Ashwattha Tvak Churna and vigorously rubbed with the ladle. At regular intervals, the Ashwattha Tvak Churna was added, and then it was rubbed vigorously. This was carried out until all of the metal in the Vanga had turned into powder and was no longer apparent as metallic. Powdered Vanga was brought at the center of iron pan, topped with Sharava, and heated to its highest temperature. The Sharava was sporadically lifted to check that the powdered Vanga had become red hot. The heating process was stopped, and the powdered Vanga was allowed to cool on its own. The following day, Jarita Vanga was carefully gathered and weighed.
Observations: Because the addition of Ashwattha Tvak Churna produced heavy smoke, it was done with the utmost care. After a short while, the smoke stopped. Vanga became ash-colored powder by the addition of Ashwattha Tvak Churna and continual rubbing with an iron ladle. Prakshalana of jarita vanga was done with four parts of water, sediments of VB-A were collected carefully and dried. Weight of VB-A was 144 g, and there was a 10% increase in weight after Jarana process.
Maran of Vanga—Vanga Bhasma-B
The process of Maran was done as follows,:
Principle: Putapaka (Incineration). Equipments: Mortar and pestle (stone made), Ardhagaja Puta, cow-dung cakes, weighing scale, knife, spoon, Sharava, mud-smeared cloth, etc. Ingredients: Shodhit Vanga + Shuddha Haratala—each 1 part (140 g), Ashwattha twak churna—1/4 part (35 g). Media for levigation: Arkapatra Swarasa –q.s.
Procedure: Bhavana of arkapatra swarasa was given to Jarita Vanga, and Shuddha Haratala and Chakrika were made and dried. After fully dried, they were kept in Sharavasamputa and Ardhagaja. Puta was given. When it becomes Swangasheeta, VB was recovered carefully, and Bhasma pariksha mentioned in texts were done. The same procedure of Bhavana with Arkapatra swarasa was given, and the Puta was given till Varitara bhasma was obtained. After 12 such puta Varitara bhasma was obtained, which was 283.2 g.
Observations: In subsequent Putas, the quantity of cow-dung cakes gradually decreased. The Chakrikas’ color transitioned from yellowish to grayish-white.
Maran of Vanga—Vanga Bhasma-C)
Principle: Putapaka (incineration)., Equipments: Mortar and pestle (stone made), Ardhagaja Puta, cow-dung cakes, weighing scale, knife, spoon, Sharava, mud-smeared cloth, etc. Ingredients: Shuddha Vanga—1 part (140 g), Shuddha Parada—1/4 part (35 g), Shuddha Haratala—1/2 part (70 g), Ashwattha twak churna—1/4 part (35 g). Media for levigation: Arkapatra Swarasa—q.s.
Procedure: Shodhit vanga and Shodhit parada were mixed together up to an amalgam is formed, in this Shodhit, Haratala was mixed and Bhavana of arkapatra swarasa was given followed by chakrika making and dried. After fully dried, they were kept in Sharavasamputa, and Ardhagaja puta was given. When it becomes swangasheeta, VB was recovered carefully, and Bhasma pariksha mentioned in texts were done. The same procedure of bhavana with arkapatra swarasa was given, and the puta was given till Varitara bhasma was obtained. After 13 such puta varitara bhasma was obtained, which was 225.45 g.
Observations: The number of cow-dung cakes was gradually reduced in further Putas. The color of the Chakrikas changed from yellowish to dark grayish.
| Results|| |
The physiochemical analysis and assay of tin of ashodhit and shodhit vanga are mentioned in [Table 1].
|Table 1: Physiochemical analysis and assay of tin of ashodhit and shodhit vanga|
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[Table 2] indicates organoleptic characters and Bhasma pariksha of different samples of VB.
|Table 2: Organoleptic characters and Bhasma pariksha of Vanga Bhasma-A, -B, and -C|
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[Table 3] shows the physiochemical analysis of different VB samples.
|Table 3: Physiochemical analysis of ashodhit, shodhit, and Vanga Bhasma-A, -B, and -C|
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[Table 4] indicates energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the samples.
| Discussion|| |
The preparation of VB (an herbal-mineral Ayurvedic medicine) involves multiple steps and the use of various herbal and mineral ingredients. Vanga was purified through a process of Dhalana using Pithara Yantra Since Putilohas melt before they become red hot as they have a low melting point. The heating procedure eliminates certain volatile elements such as arsenic and sulfur, which get eliminated during its melting stage. And, the quenching procedure forms a coarse grain structure that increases brittleness. This process results in silver shining solid Vanga with a small part in granular form. The process also indicates that there is weight loss due to the removal of impurities. Similarly, Parada was purified through a process of Mardana and Dhavana using Nistusha Rasona, whereas Haratala was purified through a process of Swedana using Churnodaka. The weight loss during the Shodhan process varied among the different materials, with Vanga showing a weight loss of 8.6%, Parada showing an average weight loss of 8.54%, and Haratala showing an average weight loss of 7.4%.
Due to their low melting points, Putiloha, such as Naga, Vanga, and Yashada, cannot be directly exposed to normal Puta in their metallic state. The free metals melt and congregate in the center of the Sharava without changing into the Bhasma form, despite the fact that these metals are directly subjected to Puta in their metallic forms. Because Putilohas have a low melting point, the Jaran method can be used to overcome this disadvantage. It is necessary to melt the purified metal in an open fry pan while also adding powdered Apamarga Panchanga, Ashwatthatvak, Chinchatvak, etc. Due to continuous stirring and rubbing, more surface of the metal was exposed to the air, and thus, concerned oxide was formed and gradually the metal converted to its powder form.
Most Jaran Dravyas used for Vanga Jaran are Kshariya (alkaline). Kshara might act as a catalyst and reduce the metal to powder. The metal may become soft and brittle due to the Bhedana feature of Kshara. These Kshariya Dravyas include chloride ions, which would enable the metal to undergo chloridization. The clay saucer plate is placed over the iron jar holding the VB during the Jaran, due to the oxygen shortage caused by this, the metal passes through the Jaran process. Even when heated to a high temperature after the Jaran process, the fine powder collected does not alter. Due to this, the parent metal (Putiloha), which has a low melting point, was compounded to a substance that can stand relatively more heat, that is, it increases the heat tolerating capacity of the Putiloha. After Jaran process, VB-A was in powdered form and passed Rekhapurna pariksha, but it does not pass Varitara and Unam bhasma pariksha. Rasatarangini has mentioned that Jarita Vanga is as good as VB and, thus, can be used without any fear, this could be verified only after Rugna parikasha.
A certain chemical substance is indicated by a specific Bhasma color. It is Dhaval Varna in the instance of VB-A (dark greyish-white). VB-B was brownish-gray in the current investigation, but VB-C was greyish-white. The reason behind these variations could be the raw material having different compositions and the greater heat generated by puta process. For marana process of VB, ardhagajaputa was given as it yields dhaval (whitish) colored bhasma, 12 and 13 ardhagajaputa were required to obtain Rekhapurna bhasma. VB-B and -C have passed all the Bhasma pariksha mentioned in texts.
The results of the analysis showed that the finished products were in compliance with the traditional Ayurvedic parameters and were within the range of expected values. The study also found that VB-C had the highest ash content and acid-insoluble ash, VB-B had the highest water-soluble extractive values, and VB-A was more alkaline in nature. The analytical study conducted on the VB-B and -C found that the samples passed all the classical organoleptic parameters and had the expected chemical composition, including the presence of Tin Oxide. The variation in color and other physical characteristics of the Bhasma samples can be attributed to the different compositions of the raw materials and the specific preparation methods used. EDS research supports the assumption that “Sn” is a key component. In all of the samples, “O” was identified as the second main component. However, the quantity of “O” was noticeably higher in VB-C. Since Parada was a component of VB-C, its presence was confirmed with VB No-C. All of the Bhasma samples included Fe, Pt, and Si, but only the VB-C samples contained K. Mg was only discovered in the VB-B sample, and S was only discovered in the VB-C samples. These Bhasma samples’ wide range of components support the incorporation of minerals added to Vanga using techniques such as Shodhan, Jaran, and Maran.
| Conclusion|| |
Despite being smooth to the touch and devoid of heavy metals, Jarita vanga does not satisfy all the standards of classical Bhasma parikash. For a patient’s safe consumption, VB made using the Putapaka method may be recommended. VB prepared using any of these techniques could produce nanoparticle-sized particles.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]