|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 56-63
Barriers to performance in state level cricketers: A cross sectional study
Radhika Chintamani, Akanksha Sharma
College of Physiotherapy, Dayananda Sagar University-K.S. Layout, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
|Date of Submission||04-Jun-2023|
|Date of Acceptance||19-Jul-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||26-Sep-2023|
Dr. Radhika Chintamani
College of Physiotherapy, Dayananda Sagar University, K.S. Layout, Bangalore, Karnataka 560078
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Studies have demonstrated various barriers present for players and athletes such as physical injuries, mental health, inter-personal relationship, physical appearance, gender barrier, lack of societal acceptance, non-disclosure of religious beliefs, low socio-economic status, and so on. Cricket is the most popular game in India. In a country of 1.4 billion, almost millions of people love to play cricket and support the players. But, very few studies entail various barriers faced by the cricketers. Hence, the aim of the current study is to identify the most prevalent barrier for the participation restriction in state level cricketers in present times. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 male cricketers were recruited on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Outcome measures such as exercise benefit and barrier scale, SF-36 questionnaire, perceived stress scale, and Zung-self rating depression questionnaire were introduced to the players immediately after noting the demographic data. Results: The results showed statistically significance with Exercise benefit and barrier scale with P value 0.05 and 36-Item Short Form Survey questionnaire with P value 0.0001 and negative significance between Perceived stress scale with P value of 0.189 and Zung self-rating depression questionnaire with P value 1.291. Conclusion: The study concluded that exercise and general health of the athletes are not getting affected but stress and depression are more prevalent in state level cricketers.
Keywords: Barriers, cricket, depression, exercise, sports, state cricket, state level, stress
|How to cite this article:|
Chintamani R, Sharma A. Barriers to performance in state level cricketers: A cross sectional study. J Ayurveda Homeopath Allied Health Sci 2022;1:56-63
|How to cite this URL:|
Chintamani R, Sharma A. Barriers to performance in state level cricketers: A cross sectional study. J Ayurveda Homeopath Allied Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Dec 10];1:56-63. Available from: http://www.dpujahas.org/text.asp?2022/1/2/56/386302
| Introduction|| |
Involvement or interest in a sport occurs from an young age to adult displays a desire or enthusiasm for the sport for various reasons, such as an admiration of the sport, a type of physical exercise, a stress reliever, and so on. A 22-yard pitch in the middle, two wickets with two bails perched on three stumps at either end, and a bat and a ball are used to play the game of cricket. This sport is played by two teams of 11 active players each with two umpires to judge the fair play of the game. The different cricket formats used in international matches range from Twenty-20, in which each team bats for a single session of 20 overs, and the game lasts roughly three to four hours, whereas test matches last five days and are the hardest match because the player has to play for an entire day for 5 days in a row, which wears down the human body as the game continues. Cricket features three distinct categories of players. They are as follows: A Batsman: the one who strikes the ball using a bat in order to generate runs and keep one’s wicket from being lost. During the strike, upper limbs dominate the action over lower limbs in order to generate power while striking. Muscle power of shoulder girdle and chest muscles play a significant role in generating the power of strike. The lower limb muscles along with core are required to remain active to maintain the stability of the body. A Bowler: the player who delivers the ball to the batsman. During bowling action relevant to cricket, the most common active muscles of upper extremity are latissimus dorsii, teres major, trapezius, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, serratus anterior, pectoralis major, deltoid, triceps brachii, and biceps brachii. Hence activities of this muscle constitute the most important factor in delivering the ball. Usually maximum activity of latissimus dorsii and teres major is seen in ball release phase of bowling. The leg spinner’s stock ball technique and the fast bowlers back-of-the-hand slow ball produce a significant eccentric contraction load on the latissimus dorsii muscle. Latissimus dorsii is known to rotate the humeral head to about 7000–9000 degrees per second so that there is easy and faster transmission of ball. A decreased time to maximum shoulder internal rotation and increased trunk tilt at ball release have been associated with an increase in ball velocity. This sudden movement causes sudden concentric contraction of the muscle. This in turn induces eccentric load at the origin of the latissimus dorsii.
The last type of player in cricket: All-rounder: An all-rounder is a bowler who is also a skilled batsman. A cricket player who consistently excels at both bowling and batting is known as an all-rounder. Although all bowlers must bat and a small number of batsman bowl on occasion, most players are experts in only one of the two disciplines.
There has been considerable research within the area participation in physical activity and sport which have focused on barriers to participation.
Anything that restricts or prevents an individual from developing in an athletic endeavor or sport is considered a barrier. Barrier may be temporary or permanent. A particular circumstance may have a variety of impediments, for example, an injury, sickness, gender, society, and cultural. When a barrier becomes an obligation for an individual, it results in participation restrictions.
Participation in sports is voluntary by the individual with various reasons such as passion, sportsmanship and to be fit. Participation restriction can be due to various reasons. Most common barriers for cricketers can be stress, depression or failure, injury, etc. A/C to International Classification of Function four different barriers can be classified as physical, psychosocial, personal, and environmental. (1) Physical/physiological barrier: A cricketer’s physical qualities of strength, speed, and endurance allow him to bat with power for long periods of time, bowl quicker and more accurately, and field athletically. (2) Psychosocial barrier: Psychosocial obstacles are those internal and individual hurdles that result from our particular views, attitudes, values, hang-ups, and inhibitions. Professional athletes frequently struggle with serious mental health disorders including anxiety, depression, anorexia nervosa, anorexia bulimia, premenopausal symptoms, amenorrhea, etc. Anxiety might result from an obsessive drive to offer the best, while sadness frequently results from an inability to do so. (3) Personal/cultural barrier: Cultural barriers linked with cricket are another explanation of declining involvement levels. Cricket has always been viewed as a male-dominated sport. This might prevent people from various demographics from participating because of social isolation. (4) Environmental barrier: Lack of adequate facilities at the grassroots level is one of the most significant hurdles to participation. Some cricket clubs frequently lack the most fundamental training equipment, such as nets.
Many studies have demonstrated that physical barriers play an important role in participation restriction. Dennis et al., Orchard et al., and Filbay et al. have concluded in their studies that previous traumas have resulted in participation restriction in cricket. Studies by Neil et al. and Hundertmark et al. have demonstrated that some cricketers experience increased level of stress; thus, setting as a barrier to participation. Nonetheless, Filbay et al. concluded in their study that depression is one of the major barriers of participation. The lack/inability to perform every activity of their day-to-day life because of any barrier makes the life of the individual very difficult and they feel helpless.
According to a study conducted by Bullock et al. various sorts of obstacles to participation are more widespread among cricketers, such as physical injury, pathological changes, elevated levels of stress, and depression, all of which influenced the quality of life of cricketers. Individual studies have demonstrated that physical and mental barriers were the primary reasons for participation restrictions among cricketers. Barriers Post-COVID became more evident due to open knowledge of mental health struggles, but these barriers existed in pre-COVID times too. Very few research has shown the aforementioned constraints might be frequent in limiting cricketer engagement. Furthermore, relatively few research has characterized the kind of barrier in COVID pandemic state level cricketers. As a result, this research has been conducted; hence, this study has been undertaken.
Aim of the current study is to identify various barriers present in the state level cricket players and to analyze the most prevalent barrier to participation in the state level cricketers in present times.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A total of 500 subjects were screened for the study. The subjects included for the study group were all the male players with age range 18–30 years, had played cricket for > or = 1 year, a State level cricketer, all three types: bowlers, batsman, and all-rounder.
H/o recent trauma or injury on or off the field, H/o medications, H/o surgical intervention, H/o debilitating conditions such cancer, asthma, heart diseases, lung diseases, tumor, and COPD , H/o neurological conditions such as dementia, stroke, multiple sclerosis, poliomyelitis, and Parkinson, H/o genetic condition like Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, cleft palate, sickle cell anemia etc.
This study was an observational study of cross-sectional type with sample size of 150 players. Procedure: An approval for the study was obtained from the College of Physiotherapy-DSU’s Institutional Ethical Committee, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, before the commencement of the study. The purpose of the study was explained and a written informed consent was obtained from all the study players. All the individuals were screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria before the enrollment into the study. Demographic data including age, gender, marital status, address, education, socio-economic status, insurance coverage, occupation, body mass index, scales pertaining to psycho-social and exercise benefits, and barriers were administered. The data were collected over a period of 3 months. Statistical analysis was done and the conclusions were tabulated.
Zung self rating depression scale, Perceived stress scale (PSS), Exercise Benefit Barrier Scale (EBBS), and SF-36 Questionnaire.
Data were analyzed using SPSS Windows version 21.0 (Dr. Javali, KLE University). Descriptive statistics including numbers, proportions, mean and standard deviations were used to analyze the data. Chi-Square test and analysis of variance were used to compare mean of all groups. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find the strength of association between numerical variables (i.e., demographic variables, physiological variables, and the outcome measures).
n = 4pq/d2 (p = mean population, q = 100 – p, d = margin of error).n = 4*61*39/82; n = 148
| Results and Interpretation|| |
The data were subjected to statistical analysis by software SPSS 21.0. The population was divided into batsman, bowler, and all-rounder. The result was analyzed for age, body mass index, and the outcome measures.
The age distribution showed highest percentage of players in batsman with highest prevalent age of 18–20 years. [Table 1] shows the age wise distribution of various players.
The total sample population is 149. The mean of the sample is 21, the mode of the sample is 35. The mean and mode are not coinciding with each other. The skewness obtained was 6. All the values are leaning towards left; left skewed distribution, meaning it is not normal distribution. As the distribution is not normal, the tests chosen for the analysis are non-parametric test: Wilcoxon test and Mann–Whitney U test. The average age of bowlers of the sample is 18.151, average age of batsmen is 20.015, and average age of all-rounder is 18.562. The details of which are mentioned in [Table 1] and [Figure 1].
The average BMI of bowlers is 26.7 ± 2.192, average BMI of batsman is 23.4 ± 1.273, and average BMI of all-rounder is 21.4 ± 2.491. The details of the same are mentioned in [Table 2] and [Figure 2].
The non-parametric test of between group analysis (Wilcoxon test) gives a P value of PSS is 0.189 which is statistically not significant. The non-parametric test of between group analysis (Wilcoxon test) gives a P value of EBBS is 0.05 which is statistically significant. The non-parametric test of between group analysis (Wilcoxon test) gives a P value of Zung self rating depression scale is 1.291 which is statistically not significant. The details of which are mentioned in [Table 3] and [Figure 3].
|Table 3: Scores of PSS, EBBS, and Zung scales with respect to type of cricket players|
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|Figure 3: Scores of PSS, EBBS, and Zung scales with respect to type of cricket players|
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The P values of SF-36 questionnaire according to each category are:
- General health: P value is 1.29 which is statistically not significant.
- Limitation of activities: P value is 0.0041 which is statistically significant.
- Physical health problems: P value is 0.289 which is statistically not significant.
- Emotional health problems: P value is 1.592 which is statistically not significant.
- Social activities: P value is 0.621 which is statistically not significant.
- Pain: P value is 0.291 which is statistically not significant.
- Energy and emotions: P value is 1.241 which is statistically not significant.
- Social activities: P value is 0.231 which is statistically not significant.
- General health: P value is 1.01 which statistically not significant.
The total P value of entire questionnaire is 0.0001 which is statistically not significant.
Only activity limitations were found to be statistically significant. The details are mentioned in [Table 4] and [Figure 4].
|Table 4: Scores of SF-36 questionnaire with respect to type of cricket players|
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|Figure 4: Score of SF-36 questionnaire score with respect to type of cricket players|
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| Discussion|| |
In the current study barriers such as stress, depression, anxiety, and exercise barriers were studied and analyzed in male State level cricketers. The current study demonstrated that perceived stress value between bowlers, batsmen, and all-rounders was statistically not significant with a P value of 0.189. Study by Surujlal et al. demonstrated that the perceived stress scores varied among different types of cricketers that are bowlers, batsmen, and all-rounders, in which the P value of within group analysis was recorded as both perceived stress and the five subscales of coping skills (coping with hardship, goal establishing/mental planning, autonomy from be concerned, faith and motivation to succeed, and coach ability) showed a significant negative relationship along with satisfaction with life. Therefore, both the studies showed that stress is negatively related to the sample population. Thus, stress is acting as a barrier.
The current study demonstrated that exercise benefit/barrier score between bowlers, batsmen and all-rounders was statistically significant with a P value of 0.05. Study by Dr. Jaswant Singh Thakur demonstrated that exercise benefit/ barrier score among different types of cricketers that are bowlers, batsmen and all-rounder’s in which the P value of within group analysis was recorded as the current study’s findings indicate a poor relationship (r = –0.029) among perceived stress and VO2 max. As a result, athletes with higher levels of physical fitness experienced lower levels of stress. The relationship between cardiovascular fitness and stress is examined in the current study; in the past, this relationship has typically been seen in the context of exercising to achieve better mental health results. Exercisers have lower rates of anxiety, depression, and negative affectivity, as suggested by earlier research. Indeed, it has been shown that PA and exercise can improve a person’s mental health and capacity to deal with stressful situations. additionally, it appears that exercise interventions enhance depression status. Study by Lovell et al. demonstrated that exercise benefit/ barrier score among different types of cricketers that are bowlers, batsmen, and all-rounders, in which the P value of within group analysis was recorded as, according to findings for the second research goal, this sample of female university students who do not exercise felt significantly more perceived benefits (M = 2.96, SD = 0.44) than barriers (M = 2.22, SD = 0.46) to exercising (t(199) = 6.18, P = 0.001). As a result, the benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33; a ratio greater than one indicated that these females perceived more benefits than barriers. Therefore, according to both the studies the current study also showed that exercise is more a benefit rather than a barrier and it improves or helps to tackle the difficulty of day-to-day life and improves mental health status. Thus, exercise is a benefit not a barrier.
The current study demonstrated that Zung self-rating depression score varied between batsmen, bowler, and all-rounder was statistically not significant with the P value of 1.291. study by Kylie Dykgraaf demonstrated that self-rating depression score among different types of cricketers that are bowlers, batsmen, and all-rounder’s in which the P value of within group analysis was recorded as Zung scores before/during injury and injury severity were found to be significantly correlated, indicating that athletes were more likely to experience depression after suffering a physical injury, especially if the injury turned out to be more serious. In our study as exclusion criteria was physical injury. Thus, P value is not significant and depression is acting as a barrier. The current study demonstrated that SF-36 questionnaire score varied between batsmen, bowler and all-rounder was statistically significant with the P value of 0.0001. Study by Mazzoni et al. demonstrated that comparison to SKTPs, AKTPs scored higher on the SF-36 scales for physical functioning (P.05), role limitations due to physical problems (P.05), general health (P.01), vitality (P.05), social functioning (P.05), role limitations due to emotional problems (P.05), and mental health (P.01). On the scales measuring mental health and social functioning, AKTPs outperformed AHCs with higher scores (P.01) and comparable (P > 0.05) results on all other scales. The advantages of participating in sports extend beyond their positive effects on physical health to include psychological and social aspects of quality of life. The literature has largely undervalued the importance of spontaneous and low to moderate sport activity after kidney transplantation. Therefore, general health is positively related which helps the athlete to return to sport. Thus, general health is a benefit not a barrier.
| Conclusion|| |
The aim of this study was to find out the most prevalent barrier in state level cricketers in order to find out—physical, psychosocial, personal, and environmental barriers that cause the participation restriction in state level cricketers during COVID pandemic. To obtain data to support the hypothesis, a set of three questionnaires were opted. Each questionnaire was used to study a different type of barrier. PSS scale was used to measure or analyze stress, EBBS scale was used to measure or analyze whether the exercise is a benefit or a barrier and Zung self-rating depression scale was used to analyze depression. Each scale was statistically analyzed in between a bowler, a batsman and an all-rounder. The results indicate that stress was statistically not significant with P value of 0.189, exercise was statistically significant with P value of 0.05, Depression scale was statistically not significant with P value of 1.291 and SF-36 questionnaire was statistically significant with P value of 0.0001. Thus, this study concludes that the barriers for state level cricketers post-pandemic which was statistically significant are stress, depression, and activity; limitation is a barrier for participation in state level cricketers.
Limitations of future recommendations
Each barrier can be individually studied separately in comparison with each other. Anxiety can also be added as a component. Also, study can be performed including female population, in pediatric population and in coaches.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]