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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-18

Comparative phytochemical and HPTLC analysis of Nisha (Curcuma longa Linn.) chunra (powder), Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica Linn.) churna (powder), and Nisha Amalaki churna (powder)


1 Department of RS&BK, ITRA, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Pharmaceutical Lab, ITRA, GAU, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission21-Dec-2021
Date of Acceptance09-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication12-Aug-2022

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Pravin Jawanjal
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, ITRA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jahas.jahas_9_21

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  Abstract 

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemical constituent and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of Nisha churna, Amalaki churna, and Nishamalaki churna.Introduction: Nisha churna, Amalaki churna, and Nishamalaki churna are important formulations, which are used in many disorders and a constituent of numerous Ayurvedic formulations. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on Nisha churna, Amalaki churna, and Nishamalaki churna (authenticated), as per standard method. Results: Identification of steroid, alkaloids, and amino acids were confirmed by authenticated phytochemical standard parameter. Conclusion: Physiochemical analysis including HPTLC of Nisha churna, Amalaki churna, and Nishamalaki churna will help in further standardization.

Keywords: Amalaki churna, HPTLC, Nisha churna, Nishamalaki churna


How to cite this article:
Jawanjal P, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B J, Shukla V J. Comparative phytochemical and HPTLC analysis of Nisha (Curcuma longa Linn.) chunra (powder), Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica Linn.) churna (powder), and Nisha Amalaki churna (powder). J Ayurveda Homeopath Allied Health Sci 2022;1:8-18

How to cite this URL:
Jawanjal P, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B J, Shukla V J. Comparative phytochemical and HPTLC analysis of Nisha (Curcuma longa Linn.) chunra (powder), Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica Linn.) churna (powder), and Nisha Amalaki churna (powder). J Ayurveda Homeopath Allied Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 26];1:8-18. Available from: http://www.dpujahas.org/text.asp?2022/1/1/8/353700




  Introduction Top


Nisha Amalaki Churna, Kalpa (formulation) with Nisha (Curcuma longa Linn.) Churna (powder) and Amlaki (Phyllanthus emblica Linn.) Churna (powder) are described in Ayurvedic texts and Nighantus.[1]Amalaki has been mentioned one of the best rejuvenates in Ayurveda. It contents include, phosphorous, iron, calcium, thiamine, carotene, riboflavin, and niacin. Pharmacological activities of Amalaki[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8] have been evaluated as beneficial in the management of diabetes. Emblica officinalis is proposed to possess antidiabetic actions as antihyperglycemic, insulin-mimetic action,[9] alpha amylase and alphaglucosidase inhibition,[10]E. officinalis beneficial in the retardation of diabetic nephropathy.[11],[12],[13]

The other ingredient Haridra has antibacterial activity and healing qualities. Pharmacological activities of Nisha[14],[15] have been evaluated as beneficial in the management of diabetes. Curcuma longa is proposed to possess antidiabetic actions as alpha amylase,[16] antidiabetic,[17] and alphaglucosidase inhibition.[18],[19] The additive effect in between Nisha and Amalaki existed as antihyperglycemic effect.[20]Clinical studies of Haridra Churna 3 g BD with Saptavimshatika Guggulu 1 g BD for the 90 days reported that statistically insignificant reduction in fasting and PPBS but significant reduction in HbA1C.[21] Formulation Nishamalak Churna i may be considered as a composition formulation or drug combination or mode of administration of drug or fixed drug combination.[22] There are many references in ancient Ayurvedic scripts for the use and efficacy of Nisha, Amalaki, and various combinations of Nisha and Amalaki in the treatment of Prameha. As per literature, both the drugs are mentioned to have many benefits in healthy and diseased state and are mentioned as Rasayana (rejuvenation).

Nisha Amalaki Churna 1 gm (two times a day) for 6 weeks in 25 patients in each group reported that statistically less significant results in FBS and PPBS parameters.[23]

Researches had proven its beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cataracts, cerebrovascular diseases, peripheral vascular diseases, retarding of diabetic nephropathy, and retinopathy with variable results. Nisha AmalakiChurna, various Kalpa of Amalaki, and Haridra[24],[25] are mentioned in the texts of Ayurveda.[20] Comparative physicochemical parameters and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) profile of Nisha churna, Amalaki churna, and Nishamalaki churna are not available in published and authentic literature. The aim of this study was to compare HPTLC fingerprint of Nisha churna, Amalaki churna, and Nishamalaki Churna along with present phytochemical constituent, physicochemical profile.


  Materials and Methods Top


Raw materials were authenticated from the pharmacognosy department. The Churna (powders) were prepared from the Nisha and Amalaki. These powders were sieved (#100) and mixed together in mortar equal proportion. The blended Churna was labeled as Nishamalaki churna and subjected to further analysis.

Samples

Sample were Nisha Churna, Amalaki Churna, and Nisha amalaki Churna

Site of study

Authentication of sample drugs were done in the pharmacognosy laboratory of ITRA.

Pharmacognostical analysis

Authentication of Nisha churna, Amalaki churna, and Nishamalaki churna were done based on organoleptic characters, morphological features, transverse section, and powder microscopy as mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API)[26] and textbook of pharmacognosy.[27],[28],[29] The phytochemical constituent, physicochemical study along with HPTLC fingerprint of Nisha churna, Amalaki churna, and Nishamalaki churna was conducted in the pharmaceutical laboratory of ITRA.

Organoleptic character

Observations were carried out with help of sensory organs.

The Churna were exposed to parameters, that is, loss on drying pH, total ash value, water-soluble extractive value, acid-insoluble ash value, and alcohol soluble extractive value. For qualitative analysis, the powders were dissolved in alcohol extract.[30]

HPTLC

Methanol extract of test drugs samples was used for HPTLC. The test drugs samples were spotted with pre-coated silica gel GL60254 aluminum plates as 10 mm bands by the means of a CAMAG Linomate V samples applicator fixed with 100 μL the Hamilton syringe. Toluene (9 mL) and ethyl acetate (1 mL) were taken for test drugs as a mobile phase. After development, densitometry scanning was carried out with the CAMAG thin-layer chromatography scanner III in the reflectance absorbance mode at 366 nm and 254 nm under the control of Win CATS software (V1.2.1. CAMAG), (Stahl E., 1969),[31] (Reich E, Schibii A., 2007).[30]


  Results and Discussion Top


Physicochemical parameters and qualitative phytochemical parameters Organoleptic evaluation

The powder of Amalak was dark brown with sour odor, sour astringent in Rasa (taste), and course fine in Sparsha (touch)and was mentioned in [Table 1]. Powder of Nisha was orangish-yellow in color, aromatic in odor, astringent in taste, and fine in touch [Table 2]. Powder of Nishamalaki was dull yellowish-brown, slightly aromatic, sour astringent, and fine in organoleptic evaluation [Table 3].
Table 1: Organoleptic features of powder of Amalaki

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Table 2: Organoleptic features of powder of Nisha

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Table 3: Organoleptic features of powder of Nishamalaki

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Microscopic characters

Diagnostic characters of Amalaki powder show that crystals of silica, brown content, fragmented simple fiber, mesocarp cell, group of sclerides, epicarp cell, after staining lignified group of scleroid, fragment of spiral vessel, fragment of annular vessels and parenchyma cells [Figure 1]. Diagnostic characters of Nisha powder show that parenchyma cell, group of simple starch, cork in surface view, scalariform vessel, simple fiber and after staining Cork in Trans giant View [Figure 2]. Diagnostic characters of Nishamalaki powder show that fragment of silica deposition of Amalaki, scalariform vessel of Haridra, starch grain of Haridra, parenchyma cell of Haridra, mesocarp cell of Amalaki, simple fiber of Haridra, scleroid of Amalaki, oleoresin content of Haridra, cork cells in tangent ant view of Haridra, and epicarp cell of Amalaki [Figure 3].
Figure 1: Pharmacognosy of Amalaki: (A) Silica deposition. (B) Brown content. (C) Fragmented simple fiber. (D) Scleroid. (E) Mesocarp cell. (F) Group of scleroid. (G) Epicarp cells. After staining: (H) Lignified group of scleroid. (I) Fragment of spiral vessel

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Figure 2: Pharmacognosy of Nisha churna: (A) Parenchyma cell. (B) Group of simple starch. (C) Cork in surface view. (D) Scalariform vessel. (E) Simple fiber. After staining: (F) Cork in trans giant view. (G) Cork in trans giant view. (H) Cork in trans giant view

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Figure 3: Pharmacognosy of Nisamalaki Churna: (A) Fragment of scalariform vessel of Haridra. (B) Silica deposition of Amalaki. (C) Starch grain of Haridra. (D) Parenchyma cell of Haridra. (E) Mesocarp cell of Amalaki. (F) Simple fiber of Haridra. (G) Scleroid of Amalaki. (H) Oleoresin content of Haridra. (I) Cork cells in tangent ant view of Haridra. (J) Epicarp cell of Amalaki. (K) Epicarp cell of Amalaki

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Physicochemical parameters

The physicochemical parameters of Amalaki Churna reveal that foreign matter was not present and other parameters were loss on drying 13.09%, ash value 6.20%, acid-insoluble ash 31.76%, water-soluble extractive 32.48, alcohol-soluble extractive 22.36, and pH (5% suspension in water) 3.25 [Table 4]. Nisha churna show that was not present and other values are loss on drying 13.14%, ash value 2.6%, acid-insoluble ash 61.56%, water-soluble extractive 32.48%, alcohol-soluble extractive7.4, and pH (5% suspension in water) 5.72 [Table 4]. Nisha amalaki shows that foreign matter was absent and other values were loss on drying 13.09%, ash value 3.75%, acid-insoluble ash 61.56%, water-soluble extractive 31.50%, alcohol-soluble extractive17.36%, and pH (5% suspension in water) 4.74.
Table 4: Physicochemical parameters

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Qualitative analysis

Nisha Churna (methanol extract) revealed that presence of steroid, alkaloids, carbohydrates. Qualitative analysis of methanol extracts of Amalaki methanol revealed that the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, carbohydrates. steroid. Qualitative analysis of methanol extracts of Amalaki revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, carbohydrates, steroid, flavanoids, and reducing sugar whereas methanol extracts of Nishamalaki revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, tannins, phenols, alkaloids, and reducing sugar [Table 5].
Table 5: Qualitative phytochemical parameters of Nisha, Amalaki, and Nisha Amalaki

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HPTLC profile

HPTLC profile of Amalaki churna (methanol extract) reveals that 6 peaks and 4 peaks, UV spectrum of 254 nm and 366 nm, respectively. HPTLC profile of Nisha churna (methanol extract) shows that 5 peaks in 254 nm and 5 peaks in 366 nm of UV spectrum, respectively. The Rf values are shown in [Table 4] and the photographs and peak display are presented in [Figure 4][Figure 5][Figure 6][Figure 7]. The Rf values obtained at 254 nm and 366 nm is 0.02 and 0.02, respectively [Table 6]. HPTLC profile of Nisha Amalaki Churna (methanol extract) reveals that 6 peaks and 5 peaks in UV visible range of 254 nm and 366 nm, respectively. In spectral comparison Nisha Churna, Amalaki Churna shows that Rf value 0.89 whereas Nisha Churna, Amalaki Churna, Nisha-Amalaki Churna Rf 0.93. In previous study of Nisha-Amalaki Churna reported that Rf values were 0.29, 0.37, 0.59, 0.63, 0.70, 0.95 in the solvent system of toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:7:1).[32] In this study, toluene and ethyl acetate ((9 mL and 1 mL) were used for test drugs as a mobile phase. The HPTLC profile of this study reveals that most common Rf value is 0.93 in Nisha Churna, Amalaki Churna, and Nisha-Amalaki Churna.
Figure 4: HPTLC of Amalaki Churna: (A) HPTLC of Amalaki Churna 254 nm. (B) HPTLC of Amalaki Churna 366 nm. (C) Peak of HPTLC of Amalaki Churna 254 nm. (D) Peak of HPTLC of Amalaki Churna 366 nm. (E) Peak of HPTLC of Amalaki Churna IN 3D 254 nm. (F) Peak of HPTLC of Amalaki Churna IN 3D 366 nm. (G) HPTLC of Amalaki Churna. (H) Amalaki Churna

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Figure 5: HPTLC of Nisha Churna: (A) HPTLC of Nisha Churna 254 nm. (B) HPTLC of Nisha Churna 366 nm. (C) Peak of HPTLC of Nisha Churna 254 nm. (D) Peak of HPTLC of Nisha Churna 366 nm. (E) Peak of HPTLC of Nisha Churna in 3D 254 nm. (F) Peak of HPTLC of Nisha Churna in 3D 366 nm. (G) HPTLC of Nisha Churna. (H) Nisha Churna

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Figure 6: HPTLC of Nisha Amalaki Churna: (A) HPTLC of Nisha Amalaki Churna in 254 nm. (B) HPTLC of Nisha Amalaki Churna in 366 nm. (C) Peak of HPTLC of Nisha Amalaki Churna in 254 nm. (D) Peak of HPTLC of Nisha Amalaki Churna in 366 nm. (E) Peak of HPTLC of Nisha Amalaki Churna in 3D 254 nm. (F) Peak of HPTLC of Nisha Amalaki Churna in 3D 366 nm. (G) HPTLC of Nisha Amalaki Churna. (H) Nisha Amalaki Churna

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Figure 7: Comparative spectrum of HPTLC of Amalaki Churna, Nisha Churna, and Nishamalaki Churna: (A) Nisha Churna and Amalaki Churna (Rf 0.89) and (B) Nisha Churna, Amalaki Churna, and Nishamalaki Churna (Rf 0.93)

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Table 6: HPTLC analysis: Physicochemical parameters and Rf values obtained at ultraviolet [Figure 1]–[Figure 4]

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  Conclusion Top


Nisha churna, Amalaki churna, and Nishamalaki churna are important formulations, which are widely used in various ailments and as constituent of numerous Ayurvedic formulations. Physiochemical analysis including HPTLC of Nisha Churna, Amalaki Churna, and Nisha-Amalaki Churna can be used in upcoming studies and quantify the chemical constituents applied in different therapeutic aspects.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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